This section provides an overview for spectrometers as well as their applications and principles. Also, please take a look at the list of 21 spectrometer manufacturers and their company rankings.
Table of Contents
A spectrometer is a general term for analytical equipment examining the spectrum of light emitted or absorbed by a substance. The device mainly consists of a light source, a spectroscopic section, a sample section, and a detector.
Spectrometers are subdivided according to the type of light source used and the mechanism of the device. Specifically, there is UV-Visible Spectrophotometer (UV-Vis), Infrared Spectrophotometer (IR), Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectrometer (ICP-AES), Atomic Absorption Spectrometer (AAS), Fluorescent X-ray Spectrometer (XRF), X-ray Photoelectron Spectrometer (XPS), etc. Each instrument can analyze different things, so they must be used for different purposes.
There are several types of spectrometers, such as UV-visible spectrophotometers and inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometers, and what can be analyzed depends on the device.
Basically, by irradiating a sample with some kind of light and observing the light absorbed, reflected, or emitted from the sample, various information about the sample can be obtained. By analyzing these data, for example, qualitative and quantitative analysis of samples, evaluation of molecular structures, and evaluation of material properties can be performed. This equipment is often used in research and development, quality control, and chemical analysis.
Spectrometers can detect the light emitted or absorbed by a substance and perform various types of analysis. Here, we mention six representative instruments and briefly describe the outline of each device.
This instrument uses ultraviolet or visible light as a light source to examine the light transmitted through or reflected from a material. It can perform qualitative and quantitative analysis of components in a sample.
This instrument uses infrared rays as a light source to examine the light transmitted through and reflected from a material. It can be used to estimate the structure and quantitatively analyze the components in a sample.
This device can detect the luminescence phenomenon generated when a sample is introduced into an inductively coupled plasma. It has extremely high sensitivity and can be used for qualitative and quantitative analysis of trace elements.
This device can perform qualitative and quantitative analysis of trace elements by utilizing the phenomenon that atoms absorb light of a specific wavelength.
This device is capable of elemental analysis of materials using X-rays as a light source. Observing the fluorescent X-rays specific to each element allows qualitative and quantitative samples to be analyzed.
Using soft X-rays as a light source, this device can obtain information on the atoms and molecules that make up the surface of a solid.
We now know that a Spectrometer is an instrument that emits light from a light source and shines it on a target material to obtain various types of information. But what kind of analysis is spectroanalysis? I will explain why obtaining information about a substance using light is possible.
Thanks to light, we can distinguish the shape and color of objects. Light absorbs or reflects specific wavelengths when a substance is illuminated by light, and this is how we can sense objects. Although this action differs from spectroscopic analysis, it is no less accurate that people obtain material information through light. And we are aware of all wavelengths in a particular region of light. The wavelengths of light used in spectrometry are very broad, and as the word "spectroscopy" implies, it is possible to extract a specific range of wavelengths.
When the wavelengths of a specific region of light spectra from a spectrometer are applied to a substance, a waveform diagram called a spectrum is obtained on a computer. In this waveform diagram, a sharp line called a peak can be seen at a specific wavelength. By reading these peaks, the characteristics and structure of the substance can be determined.
The primary examples are:
Obtaining material information by spectrometry means reading the peaks in a waveform diagram called a spectrum. The following is an explanation of what the spectrum of each Spectrometer indicates.
Peaks are often detected in the form of a mountain. The peak indicates the wavelength of the electrons when they enter the excited state.
Peaks can be mountainous or sharp, depending on wavelength. Vibrations between atoms of organic compounds can be identified from their wavelengths.
When a substance emits light, electrons are in an excited state. After emitting light, the electrons return from the excited state to the ground state while releasing energy. This emitted energy is converted to wavelength and detected as a peak.
Electrons enter an excited state when light is shone on the atoms that make up mainly inorganic substances. The wavelength of the excited state can be obtained as a peak.
In the same principle of luminescence, when electrons settle from the excited state to the ground state by X-ray irradiation, the wavelength of the emitted energy is the peak.
When soft X-rays are applied to atoms or molecules on a solid surface, ionization of the atoms or molecules occurs. The energy of the electrons emitted from ionization is detected as the peak.
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Ranking as of June 2023 GloballyDerivation Method
|8||AMETEK Process Instruments||4.3%|
|11||International Crystal Laboratories||4.3%|
|12||RJM Sales, Inc.||4.3%|
|15||Kristen Mann Design LLC||2.2%|
|16||World Star Tech Inc.||2.2%|
|17||International Light Technologies (ILT)||2.2%|
Derivation MethodThe ranking is calculated based on the click share within the spectrometer page as of June 2023. Click share is defined as the total number of clicks for all companies during the period divided by the number of clicks for each company.
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