This section provides an overview for pwm controllers as well as their applications and principles. Also, please take a look at the list of 12 pwm controller manufacturers and their company rankings.
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A PWM controller is a device that modulates the pulse width of current and voltage while maintaining a constant frequency period.
By modulating the pulse width using a PWM controller, the duty ratio is changed to control the on-time and off-time of the pulse. The duty ratio can be calculated as pulse width/cycle.
Semiconductor devices are used for PWM switching.
PWM controllers are used to control the speed of motors. Various types of motors are used, including AC motors, DC motors, and synchronous motors.
In recent years, for AC motors used in manufacturing and other industries, PWM controllers are used to determine the required voltage to be given to the motor based on the feedback from a speed detector such as a pulse generator attached to the motor and calculated by a detection circuit. This controller is often built into the board.
PWM controllers calculate the pulses to be output by multiplying a sine wave, which is the source to be controlled, with a sawtooth wave (triangular wave) called a carrier, using a comparator composed of operational amplifiers.
To create a pulse, the sine wave is turned on where the sine wave > the sawtooth wave and turned off where the sine wave < the sawtooth wave, and the multiplied result is output as a pulse. By creating pulses in this way, the pulse is "dense" in the high sine wave area and "sparse" in the low sine wave area.
A switching mechanism is necessary to turn the pulse on and off, and semiconductors such as transistors and thyristors are used for switching. These semiconductors have a function to energize the anode (emitter) and cathode (collector) only when a signal comes to the gate (base), so by sending a comparator signal to the gate, the semiconductor itself turns on and off, resulting in the pulse also turning on and off.
*Including some distributors, etc.
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